#52Ancestors (2019-1) My First United States Colored Troops (USCT) Ancestor: Silas Lightfoot (1844-1884), Co. A, 2nd Inf. USCT

I had no family oral history of anyone serving during the Civil War. I had not found any names of any direct ancestors when searching databases for the Civil War, specifically, none of my ancestors of color, either in the regular military or in the USCT. However, when planning for a trip to Tallahassee, I looked up places of interest to visit. I was going to be visiting the Eaton Archives at Florida A & M, to donate some items that belonged to my grandmother, Lela Virginia Farnell Williams, who had been among the first students.[1]  I thought I might have time to see some other places before leaving town (I didn’t as it turned out). I found the website of the 2nd Infantry USCT Living History Association,[2] which had a muster roll of those in the units.[3] On it was Silas Lightfoot. I knew that the name of the husband of my great grandmother’s sister, Harriet Jacobs was Silas Lightfoot. I had a USCT ancestor, albeit a collateral in-law, but who’s quibbling? I began to research his background.

Silas Lightfoot was born on 25 December 1844,[4] in Southampton, Virginia.[5] He was my 2nd great uncle by marriage, being married to Harriett Jacobs,[6] sister of my great grandmother, Sallie Jacobs Farnell. On 23 June 1863, he enlisted in Company A, 2nd Regiment US Colored Volunteer Infantry, on Craney Island, Virginia,[7] located in the waters of the Elizabeth River where Hampton Roads, Portsmouth, Newport News and Norfolk converge. It was off the waters of Craney Island that the Merrimac was sunk in 1862. Craney Island was thus under Union control.[8]

craney island
Craney Island, Virginia

In 1863, General Benjamin Butler, at nearby Fort Monroe, the Old Point Comfort, was faced with the decision of whether to return fugitive slaves, since President Lincoln had said the war was not about slavery. Butler chose not to do that, resulting in over 1600 freed slaves, identified as “contraband,” seeking refuge on Craney Island.[9] Apparently, Silas was one of them.

Silas was described in his enlistment papers as 19 years of age, 5 feet 9 inches, dark skinned, with dark eyes, dark hair, and a farmer. He was enlisted by a Captain Wilder for three years and subsequently mustered in by Captain Cogswell. He was assigned to Fort Monroe,[10] where he would serve until February of 1865, when he was transferred to Fort Taylor on Key West, Florida, where he served as the Post baker.[11] His service records, however, indicate that he had several different occupations. In April 1864, he was assigned as a carpenter with the Quartermaster’s department.  In May 1864, he was assigned to the Medical Director. He served in that capacity until November, when he was assigned as a hospital attendant.

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Enlistment Record of Silas Lightfoot

Silas mustered out of the military 5 January 1866, in Tallahassee, according to the record of military service in the Bureau of Pensions file, for his widow, Harriet, dated 13 November 1890.[12] On 6 October 1868, he married Caledonia Hinton there.[13] They had two children, Robert and Frances (“Fanny”).[14] Caledonia died 28 May 1874, in Madison, Madison County, according to a neighbor, Sallie Garvin.[15] and the children went to live with relatives.[16] Subsequently, on 7 November1874, in Live Oak, Suwannee, Florida, Silas married Harriett Jacobs.[17]  They would go on to have three children: Silas Jr., Charlotte, and Willie Caledonia.[18] Charlotte was most likely named after Harriett’s mother, Charlotte Jacobs,[19] and Willie Caledonia appears to have been named for his first wife, Caledonia.

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Marriage License of Silas Lightfoot & Harriet Jacobs, 6 November 1874, Suwannee County, FL

By 1880, Silas was working for the railroad and was living in Orange County, in what would become Sanford, now in Seminole County.[20] However, on 25 March 1884, he died[21] intestate. Harriett petitioned the court to be named Administratrix of the estate and was so granted.[22] The following year, on 21 August 1885, she sold her property in Live Oak, Suwannee County, to her sister, Sallie Jacobs Farnell, with the contingency that, on her death, it be passed next to Sallie’s daughter, Lela Virginia Farnell, my grandmother.[23]

img_3528
Widow’s Pension of Harriet Lightfoot

In 1890, Harriett filed for a widow’s pension, which was granted.[24] In support of her application, her brother, Green Jacobs, submitted testimony that he was personally aware of the date of death for Silas Lightfoot.[25] In 1916, in support of an application for an increase in pension benefits, another of Harriet’s brothers, Richard Jacobs, provided a statement in support of her claim, commenting that their family members were dead, except a younger brother “Joe.”[26] It is assumed he meant other than her children. Also, as part of the request for increased benefits, friends John Morague and A. S. Stokes provided testimony wherein Harriet was described as a woman with,

“no property except a small lot and house thereon that she resides on in Sanford, Florida, and that said claimant … has to work to maintain herself and family and that she has no other means of support than her labor… derived from washing and cooking and that she has no other source of income whatever.”[27]

The increase was granted.

silas lightfoot tombstone (2)
Silas Lightfoot Tombstone, Page Jackson Cemetery, Sanford, Florida (Photo from Find a Grave).

Harriett died 24 August 1945, in Sanford, Florida.[28] There is no headstone for Harriet, but it is assumed she is buried next to Silas in Page Jackson Cemetery, in Sanford, Florida.[29]

References

[1] #52Ancestors—Heirloom: The Autograph Book (Blogpost). Personal Prologue: Family Roots and Personal Branches. Retrieved from: margoleewilliamsbooks.com

[2] 2nd Infantry Regiment United States Colored Troops Living History Association. Retrieved from: the2ndusctlha.org

[3] Silas Lightfoot (#716), Company A, Private In/Private Out. In Muster Roll of the Officers and Soldiers of the 2nd Infantry Regiment United States Colored Troops. Retrieved from: Muster Roll–2nd Infantry USCT

[4] Silas Lightfoot (25 December 1844-25 March 1884). Find A Grave. Retrieved from: Findagrave.com

[5] U.S. Colored Troops Military Service Records, 1863-1865 [Database on-line]. Silas Lightfoot. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[6] Florida, County Marriages, 1823-1982 [Database on-line]. Silas Lightfoot and Harriet Jacobs, 7 Nov 1874, Suwannee County, Florida. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[7] U.S. Colored Troops Military Service Records, 1863-1865 [Database on-line]. Silas Lightfoot. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[8] Craney Island – Virginia Places. Retrieved from: Virginiaplaces.org

[9] Craney Island – Virginia Places. Retrieved from: Virginiaplaces.org

[10] U.S. Colored Troops Military Service Records, 1863-1865 [Database on-line]. Silas Lightfoot. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[11] U.S. Colored Troops Military Service Records, 1863-1865 [Database on-line]. Silas Lightfoot. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[12] Military Service: Silas Lightfoot in Pension Application # 447.541 (13 Nov 1890). War Department Record and Pension Division. Veterans Administration Claim File XC2666685. Copy in possession of author.

[13] Florida, County Marriages, 1823-1982 [Database on-line]. Silas Lightfoot and Caledonia Hinton, 6 October 1868, Tallahassee, Leon County, Florida. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[14] Declaration for Original Pension of a Widow, Child or Children under Sixteen Years of Age Surviving: Harriet Lightfoot. “His by a former marriage: Robert, born 1870; Frances, born 1873.”  Veterans Administration Claim File XC2666685. Copy in possession of author.

[15] General Affidavit of Sallie Garvin18 April 1892. Veterans Administration Claim File XC2666685. Copy in possession of author.

[16] 1880 US Federal Census Place: Precinct 1 and 2, Putnam, Florida; Nathaniel Hinton, head; Fanny Lightfoot, niece. NARA Roll: 131; Family History Film: #1254131; Page: 37A; Enumeration District: 130. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

And, Florida, State Census, 1867-1945 [Database on-line]. Edith Austin, head; Robert C. Lightfoot, great nephew. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[17] Florida, County Marriages, 1823-1982 [Database on-line]. Silas Lightfoot and Harriet Jacobs, 7 Nov 1874, Suwannee County, Florida. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[18] Widow’s Pension: Harriet Lightfoot, 447541. Silas, born 16 Dec 1879; Charlotte, born 18 September 1881; Willie Caledonia, born 18 July 1883.  Veterans Administration Claim File XC2666685. Copy in possession of author.

[19] 1870 US Federal Census, Place: Subdivision 9, Suwannee, Florida; William Jacobs, head; Charlotte Jacobs, Harriet Jacobs. NARA Roll: M593-133; Page: 686A; Image: 507; Family History Library Film: #545632. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[20]  1880 US Federal Census, Place: Precinct 2, Orange, Florida; Silas Lightfoot, head. NARA Roll: 131; Family History Film: #1254131; Page: 429B; Enumeration District: 126; Image: 0501. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[21] Declaration for Original Pension of a Widow, Child or Children under Sixteen Years of Age Surviving: Harriet LightfootVeterans Administration Claim File XC2666685. Copy in possession of author.

[22] Florida, Wills and Probate Records, 1810-1974 [Database on-line]. Silas Lightfoot, Deceased; Hattie Lightfoot, Administratrix. Probate Packet 91, Orange County, Florida. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[23] Suwannee County Deed Book I:431-432. Harriett Lightfoot to Sallie Farnell and Lela Virginia Farnell, 21 August 1885. Family History Library Film #008584052. Retrieved from: Familysearch.org

[24] Widow’s Pension: Harriet Lightfoot, 447541. Veterans Administration Claim File XC2666685. Copy in possession of author.

[25] General Affidavit, Green Jacobs, 9 February 1892 and 18 April 1892, Sanford, Florida, in support of Claim for Pension by Harriet Lightfoot. Veterans Administration Claim File XC2666685. Copy in possession of author.

[26] Notarized Statement of Richard Jacobs, 22 December 1916, Sanford, Florida, in support of Claim for Increase in Benefits by Harriet Lightfoot. Veterans Administration Claim File XC2666685. Copy in possession of author.

[27] General Affidavit, John Morague and A. S. Stokes, Sanford, Florida, in support of increase of pension benefits, Harriet Lightfoot. Veterans Application Claim File XC2666685. Copy in possession of author.

[28] Death Compensation or Pension Award Account Card, Payee: Harriet Lightfoot, Died 8-24-45. Veterans Administration Claim File XC2666685. Copy in possession of author.

[29] Silas Lightfoot (25 December 1844-25 March 1884). Find A Grave. Retrieved from: Findagrave.com

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1891, the Year of the African American Woman Postmaster: Elinora Wilhelmina Farmer Walden of Strieby, Randolph County, North Carolina

Recently, I saw a Fb post noting that Minnie Cox, of Indianola, Mississippi, was the first African American woman postmaster. In searching for information on her, I learned that she was appointed by Benjamin Harrison in January 1891,[1] however, the town of Indianola made her life difficult, complete with death threats. Despite these difficulties, Cox was reappointed by McKinley and Teddy Roosevelt. During her third term, as anti-black attitudes increased and her situation became increasingly dangerous, Cox attempted to resign. Teddy Roosevelt, who was now the President, refused her resignation, preferring to close the post office and reroute the mail to a different town rather than cave to the bigotry of Indianola.  Cox left town for her own safety. When the post office reopened, Cox did not return as the postmaster. She did return to Indianola, but never again as postmaster.[2] The story was compelling, but I was certain she was not the only African American woman postmaster from the time period. I had to check, but I knew that Elinora W. (Farmer) Walden had been postmaster in Strieby, Randolph County, North Carolina, in the same time period. I quickly looked it up.

I was right. Elinora Walden had been appointed in the same time period. In fact, she was appointed in May 1891, the same year as Minnie Cox.[3] Minnie may have been the first, but clearly President Harrison was willing to appoint others, like Elinora.

Elinora Wilhelmina Farmer Walden

Elinora Wilhelmina Farmer was born in New Brunswick, Middlesex County, New Jersey 28 November 1857,[4] to John A. and Catherine Farmer.[5] Elinora was the oldest of seven siblings; she had one brother and five sisters. At this time, nothing is known about the specifics of her education, however, she went to Randolph County (NC) as a teacher indicating she probably had some formal training. In addition, she had been involved in a school program in New Brunswick.

1870 census john farmer family new brunswick nj
1870 Census, John Farmer Family, including daughters, Elinora and Phoebe Farmer, Newark, New Jersey

Elinora and her family were very likely members at historic Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church, founded in New Brunswick in 1827.[6] It was here that she probably met New Brunswick Theological Seminarian, (Alfred) Islay Walden.[7] Walden preached at the church at least occasionally, including just before his graduation at the end of June 1879.[8] Also, Elinora and her sister, Phoebe,[9] were involved apparently at the Students’ Mission, that Islay ran during his years at the seminary (1877-1879). They were most likely the E. Farmer and P. Farmer mentioned in an article about the mission that appeared in the New Brunswick Daily Times.[10]

The relationship with Walden very likely included writing letters (none of which are known to still exist) after he returned to southwestern Randolph County, in 1879, as a missionary with the American Missionary Association (AMA).[11] In 1880, Walden established the First Congregational Church of Randolph County and started a school in an area of the Uwharrie Mountains, called Hill Town because of the large number of Hill families living there, including Walden’s sister. He was also charged with leading a church called Salem, about eight miles away.[12] Having a partner for his life and mission must certainly have seemed appealing, because Walden returned to New Jersey in 1881 and married Elinora.[13] Elinora returned with Walden to Randolph County, becoming the Principal and primary teacher of the school. In addition to the typical academic subjects, Elinora worked with the youth, helping to develop their spiritual and prayer life.

old strieby church w people
Original Strieby Church Building, Randolph County, North Carolina

In late 1882, or early 1883, Walden petitioned the federal government for a new post office to be placed in the community of Hill Town, which by then also had a general store. The post office would eliminate the long trip to the Lassiter’s Mill Post Office that had been serving the community. He also proposed that the new post office be known as “Strieby,” after the Rev. Dr. Strieby, Corresponding Secretary of the AMA, whom Walden admired.[14] The Post Office was established in 1883; Walden was the first Postmaster, appointed 31 May 1883. No longer known as Hill Town, the community would henceforth be known as Strieby, including the church and school, which became Strieby Congregational Church and School.

Walden’s tenure was short. The following 2 February 1884, he died from acute Bronchiteis (more likely pneumonia).[15] Elinora was widowed, in charge of the school, but the Rev. Zachariah Simmons came from Salem Church to be the pastor. Also coming to help her with the teaching was Henry Ruffin Walden, a cousin from neighboring Moore County and a student at Hampton College in the Normal program.[16] Though several years her junior, Elinora and Henry would marry on 13 December 1888.[17]  Henry would finish his studies at Hampton and return to Strieby to help Elinora with the teaching.

In 1890, Elinora’s sister Phoebe married Harris Dunson,[18] who lived in the nearby Lassiter Mill community, about three miles away, situated along the Uwharrie River. It seems likely that Phoebe helped with the school, which may have been the reason she came to Randolph County. She probably came to help her sister after the death of Islay Walden.

appointment of elinora w. walden as postmaster
Appointment of Elinora W. Walden as Postmaster, Strieby, Randolph County, North Carolina, 7 May 1891

On 7 May 1891, Elinora was appointed Postmaster at Strieby.[19] In a strange replay of the tenure of Islay Walden, Elinora died in February of 1892.[20] Having no children, Henry, as Administrator of her estate, distributed $400 to her sister, Phoebe Dunson.[21] She was buried in Strieby Church Cemetery alongside her first husband, Islay Walden.

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Gravemarker of Elinora W. Walden, Strieby Church Cemetery, Randolph County, North Carolina. Photo by Margo Lee Williams

Elinora’s death was considered a terrible loss to the community, especially because a secondary school at Strieby, called Garfield Academy, with Elinora as Headmistress, seems to have been abandoned. The academy would have eliminated the necessity for students to leave home to attend boarding schools in order to further their education.  With Elinora’s death the secondary school was discontinued. There’s no written record this researcher has found to date that explains why.[22]

Henry Ruffin Walden who was teaching at Salem School, returned to Strieby to take over the School. Eventually, he would remarry. He married a teacher, Theodosia Hargraves,[23] who did not come from Randolph County. Henry and Theodosia would leave Strieby after a few years. Like his cousin, Islay, Henry would go on to become a Congregational minister, serving churches in Charlotte and High Point,[24] before dying in Winston Salem.[25]

A Final Thought

It Is remarkable that at a time when Jim Crow laws were becoming more prominent, when women and people of color could not vote, at least these two women, Minnie Cox and Elinora Walden were trusted with the authority of being Postmaster of their local post offices. I can’t help but suspect there were others whose names have been lost to history, but whose stories need to be told.

References

[1] U.S., Appointments of U. S. Postmasters, 1832-1971 [database on-line]. Minnie M. Cox, appointed 16 Jan 1891, Indianola, Sunflower, Mississippi. Record of Appointment of Postmasters, 1832-1971 Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[2] Boyd, D. and Chen, K. (2014). Minnie M Cox: A Postmaster’s Story. The History and Experience of African Americans in America’s Postal Service. Retrieved from: Smithsonian National Postal Museum

[3] U.S., Appointments of U. S. Postmasters, 1832-1971 [database on-line]. Elinora W. Walden, appointed 7 May 1891, Strieby, Randolph, North Carolina. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[4] New Jersey, Births and Christenings Index, 1660-1931 [Database on-line]. Name: Farmer, Gender: Female; Father: John Farmer. Date: 28 Nov 1857, New Brunswick, Middlesex Co., New Jersey. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[5] 1870 US Federal Census; Census Place: Newark Ward 2, Essex, New Jersey; John Farmer, head; Elenora Farmer, age 11 [sic]. NARA Roll: M593-879; Page: 167B; Image: 339; Family History Library Film: 552378. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[6] Mount Zion African Methodist Episcopal Church. (2015). Our History: About Us. Retrieved from: Mount Zion AME Church

[7] NBTS Anti-Racism Transformation Team. (25 February 2016). Slavery, Justice, and New Brunswick Theological Seminary: First African American Graduates. New Brunswick Theological Seminary. Retrieved from: New Brunswick Theological Seminary

[8] The Daily Times. (30 June 1879). City Matters. (New Brunswick, NJ), 3. Retrieved from:New Brunswick Free Public Library

[9] 1870 US Federal Census; Census Place: Newark Ward 2, Essex, New Jersey; John A. Farmer, head; Phebe A. Farmer, age 4. NARA Roll: M593-879; Page: 167B; Image: 339; Family History Library Film: 552378. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[10] The Daily Times. (3 January 1879 & 4 January 1879). Shoes for the Poor. (New Brunswick, NJ), 3. Retrieved from: New Brunswick Free Public Library

[11] 1880 US Federal Census; Census Place: Union, Randolph, North Carolina; Islay Walden, Boarder. NARA Roll: 978; Family History Film: 1254978; Page: 196C; Enumeration District: 224; Image: 0683. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[12] Williams, M. L. (2016). Return to Hill Town. From Hill Town to Strieby: Education and the American Missionary Association in the Uwharrie “Back Country” of Randolph County, North Carolina (Crofton, KY: Backintyme Publishing) pp. 81-88.

[13] New Jersey, Marriage Records, 1670-1965 [Database on-line]. Alfred I. Walden and Elenor W. Farmer, married: 18 May 1881, New Brunswick, Middlesex, New Jersey. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[14] Williams, M. L. (2016). Return to Hill Town. From Hill Town to Strieby: Education and the American Missionary Association in the Uwharrie “Back Country” of Randolph County, North Carolina (Crofton, KY: Backintyme Publishing) pp. 90-91.

[15] National Council. (1885). Vital Statistics.  The Congregational Yearbook, 1885. (Boston: Congregational Publishing Society) Volume 7:37. Retrieved from: Google Books

[16] Williams, M. L. (2016). A Widow Carries On. From Hill Town to Strieby: Education and the American Missionary Association in the Uwharrie “Back Country” of Randolph County, North Carolina (Crofton, KY: Backintyme Publishing) pp. 93-94.

[17] North Carolina, Marriage Records, 1741-2011 [Database on-line]. H. R. Walden and Eleanor W. Walden, married: 13 Dec 1888, Randolph County, North Carolina. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[18] North Carolina, Marriage Records, 1741-2011 [Database on-line]. Harris Dunson and Phoebe Farmer, married 3 Apr 1890, Randolph County, North Carolina. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[19] U.S., Appointments of U. S. Postmasters, 1832-1971 [database on-line]. Elinora W. Walden, appointed 7 May 1891, Strieby, Randolph, North Carolina. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[20] American Missionary Association (AMA). (1892). Obituary: Mrs. Henry R. Walden. The American Missionary, 46(3):91. Retrieved from: Google Books

[21] North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998 [Database on-line]. Administrators Bonds, Henry R. Walden, Administrator; Estate of Elinora W. Walden. Probate date: 17 Feb 1892, Randolph County Court. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[22] Williams, M. L. (2016). A Widow Carries On. From Hill Town to Strieby: Education and the American Missionary Association in the Uwharrie “Back Country” of Randolph County, North Carolina (Crofton, KY: Backintyme Publishing) pp. 96.

[23] North Carolina, Marriage Records, 1741-2011 [Database on-line]. Henry R. Walden and Theodosia E. Hargrave, married:11 Sep 1898, Randolph County. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[24] Williams, M. L. (2016). A Widow Carries On. From Hill Town to Strieby: Education and the American Missionary Association in the Uwharrie “Back Country” of Randolph County, North Carolina (Crofton, KY: Backintyme Publishing) pp. 96-98.

[25] North Carolina, Death Certificates, 1909-1976 [Database on-line]. Rev. Henry Ruffin Walden, date of death: 20 Jan 1951. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

 

Lindsey Ingraham’s Trail of Tears

Recently, I had the good fortune to speak with a family elder, Carlotta, with whom I had never spoken previously. In fact, I had only learned of her existence about a year before. She is in her eighties, with a mind that is sharp and she has family memories of which I had no knowledge. She is descended from my 2nd great grandmother’s sister, Mary Adelaide Dunson, who was married to a man named Solomon Kearns.[1] While talking to Carlotta during the Christmas holiday season, she began to tell me a story about Solomon’s father, whom she identified as “Lin Ingram.” I had seen his name before, but had not heard anything about him, nor could I find him in the 1870 census in Randolph County, North Carolina or after. Solomon’s mother Lydia or “Lettie” Kearns had children with another man, Noah Carter beginning around 1860, so I had assumed Lin had died. Carlotta told a different story.

Marriage License of Solomon Kearns and Fannie Brite

Marriage License of Solomon Kearns and Fannie Brite

Carlotta explained that Lin had been enslaved. He heard that he and others were going to be sold away from Randolph County. He was determined that it would not come to pass. Carlotta said he fought back when they tried to take him away. She said he fought hard. At some point his owner supposedly said that he had fought hard and he could see he was tired. The owner said that Lin should take a rest, it would be alright. Carlotta said that when Lin laid down to rest, the owner sent his men in to overcome Len, shackling him and leading him away. According to Carlotta, young Solomon watched as his father was led away. He reportedly told his children later that Lin kept trying to look back, as though to try to capture the memory of his family, understanding he might never see them again in life.

Lin was transported to Louisiana. He was part of what is now being called “Slavery’s Trail of Tears.”[2] It would have been a difficult and arduous journey on foot from the North Carolina Piedmont, through the Appalachians, south to Louisiana. Carlotta said that he did come home to Randolph County after the end of the Civil War and Emancipation. However, he didn’t stay. He went back to Louisiana, never to be heard from again. I wondered what happened to him.

Lindsey Ingraham, 1870 Census, LaFourche, Louisiana
Lindsey Ingraham, 1870 Census, LaFourche, Louisiana

It didn’t take long to locate Lin in Louisiana, under the name of Lindsay Ingraham, from North Carolina. That was the name found on a marriage record for Solomon and his first wife, Fanny Brite (Bright).[3] In 1870, Lin was living in a town called Raceland, in LaFourche County.[4] He was married to a woman named Mary. They had three children, Thomas, Clementine, and Randolph Ingraham. Unlike his children in North Carolina (Clarkson, Solomon, Sarah, Vinis, and Mariam), who went by the surname Kearns, their mother’s maiden name, Lin’s children in Louisiana used the Ingraham name. By looking at the birthdate of his presumed youngest daughter in North Carolina, Mariam,[5] the oldest of his children, Thomas, in Louisiana, it appears that he was transported to Louisiana between 1850 and 1854. Unfortunately, I have not been able to locate the family in the 1880 census. Since Lin and Mary cannot be found on the 1900 census either, it appears both may have died before 1900. Additionally, neither Thomas nor Randolph has been found in the census after 1870.  On the other hand, daughter Clementine has been identified from 1900[6] until her death in 1934.[7]

Clementine married Alfred Mack in 1894.[8] However, it appears their relationship had begun years before. Their first child is recorded as born in 1879.[9] There is no evidence that Alfred Mack had been married before Clementine. Together, Alfred and Clementine had ten children: Albert, Louis, Rebecca, Clara, Horace, Morris, Ressie, Lawles, Yulus, and Muriel.[10] Clementine died in 1934;[11] Alfred died in 1957.[12]

References

[1] North Carolina, Marriage Records, 1741-2011 [Database on-line]. Solomon Kearns and Adelaide Dunson, 17 Apr 1890, Randolph County, North Carolina. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[2] Ball, Edward. (2018). Retracing Slavery’s Trail of Tears. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved from: Smithsonian Magazine on-line.

[3] North Carolina, Marriage Records, 1741-2011 [Database on-line]. Solomon Kearns and Fanny Brite, 10 Apr 1886, Cabarrus County, North Carolina; Father: Lindsy Ingram; Mother: Lydia Kearns. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[4] 1870 US Federal Census; Ward 4, Lafourche County, Louisiana; Lindsay Ingraham, head; born: North Carolina. NARA Roll: M593-516; Page: 469B; Family History Library Film: 552015. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[5] 1880 US Federal Census, Tabernacle, Randolph County, North Carolina; Calvin Luther, head; Mary A. [sic], wife. NARA Roll: 978; Family History Film: 1254978; Page: 67D; Enumeration District: 214. Mariam “Emma” Kearns Luther died before death certificates were mandated in North Carolina. There is also no information about parents on her marriage records. However, she names at least two of her children after siblings who can be identified as the children of Lydia Kearns, including Solomon, before Lindsay is presumed to have been sold. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[6] 1900 US Federal Census, Police Jury Ward 10, Lafourche County, Louisiana; Page 3. Alfred Mack, head; Clementine Mack, wife. Enumeration District: 0036; NARA T623; FHL microfilm: 1240567. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[7] Louisiana, Statewide Death Index, 1819-1964 [database on-line]. Clementine I. Mack, died 25 Oct 1934, LaFourche County, Louisiana. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[8] Louisiana, Compiled Marriage Index, 1718-1925 [Database on-line]. Clementine Ingraham and Alfred Mack, married 10 Sep 1894, LaFourche County, Louisiana. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[9] 1900 US Federal Census, Police Jury Ward 10, Lafourche County, Louisiana; Page 3. Alfred Mack, head; Albert Mack, son, born Jul 1879. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[10] 1900 US Federal Census, Police Jury Ward 10, Lafourche County, Louisiana; Page 3. Alfred Mack, head. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com 

See also: 1910 US Federal Census, Police Jury Ward 10, Lafourche County, Louisiana; Albert Mack, head. NARA Roll: T624-517; Page: 32A; Enumeration District: 0048; FHL microfilm: 1374530. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[11] Louisiana, Statewide Death Index, 1819-1964 [database on-line].  Clementine I. Mack, died 25 Oct 1934, LaFourche County, Louisiana. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com

[12] Louisiana, Statewide Death Index, 1819-1964 [database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Alfred Mack, died 27 Jan 1957, LaFourche County, Louisiana. Retrieved from: Ancestry.com