#52Ancestors – Week #12, Misfortune: Wiley’s story

Wiley Phillips Lassiter was born a free man since his mother, Healy Phillips, was a free woman of color even though his father, Miles Lassiter, was a slave.[1] According to the 1850 census, Wiley was a painter,[2] but later records indicate he was also a carriage maker.[3] Despite being born free and having skills, Wiley’s life would be plagued by misfortune.

There is no information about his formative years. His name was not found among the apprenticeship records like so many other young free children of color. However, by 1850 he was living independently, married to Elizabeth (Ridge)and with two daughters, Abagail and Nancy. As mentioned above, he is recorded as a painter. He could be assumed to be reasonably successful since the 1850 census said he owned real estate worth $500.[4]

Wiley Lassiter 1850 census

In 1850 he applied for a land grant, acquiring 100 acres finally in 1851.[5] By 1854, he had also received his share in the partition of his mother’s land, now that his father Miles had also died.[6] In 1854, he applied for a second land grant, this one for 59 acres, which he received in 1856.[7] In 1856, he used his property as collateral for securities and bonds posted in conjunction with a lawsuit he brought against Michael Bingham, a local white store owner. [8]

Wiley Phillips Land Grant 1851

Bingham had sued Wiley for money owed amounting to $600. Wiley countersued, charging that he had put carriages and horses on sale at Bingham’s sore in exchange for goods, but Bingham never properly reconciled the accounts. As a result, Wiley now ‘owed his soul’ to the store, as the song goes.[9] In addition, Bingham’s original suit against Wiley resulted in seven judgments against Wiley. Wiley was seeking redress from the courts. Judge John M. Dick felt the courts had done a “great injustice,” by allowing Bingham to recover the seven judgments. Dick ordered the judge in the original case to submit written documentation, including the judgments. He ordered Bingham to appear during the next court term to answer Wiley’s petition. Wiley was ordered to enter the bonds and securities. Wiley was able to acquire the money by taking a deed of trust with Robert G. Murdock on268 acres of land, including his inherited lands and the land grant.[10] He took a second deed of trust, also with Murdock, on his personal property including his home.[11]

In a cruel twist of fate, Bingham died before the next court session in the Spring of 1857.[12] As a result, the court required Wiley to withdraw his petition, leaving in place the seven judgments against him. Penniless and essentially homeless, Wiley appears to have moved to Fayetteville where he is recorded in the 1860 census,[13] most likely in hopes of having better business opportunities, and thus to be better able to care for his family. However, his misfortunes did not end there.

Wiley Lassiter sale notice

In May 1858, a notice appeared in the Fayetteville Weekly Observer.[14] It was a notice for the upcoming sale of a free man back into slavery because of monies owed to an Emsley Lassiter. The free man in question was Wiley. The notice said that Emsley had loaned Wiley money and that he had tried to be very patient about its repayment, but despite his patience, the money was still owed.  What was interesting was that Emsley was the grandson of Sarah Lassiter, Miles Lassiter’s owner. Based on all surviving information Sarah had been kind and even generous to Miles, making him her business manager and allowing him to live his life like a free man. She was legally constrained from freeing him in her lifetime, these practical freedoms were the best she could do. I find it interesting that Emsley was apparently helpful in loaning Wiley money, but ultimately held to the specifics of the business arrangement. Exactly what happened next is not clear, but all surviving evidence shows that Wiley was able to dodge that fate. A letter that has survived in the family indicates that some others may have come to his rescue, but ultimately leaving him in continued debt, not to Emsley any longer, but to another friend “Johnsey” Cranford, and his brother Colier.[15]

Wiley wrote to his brother Colier in August 1858, indicating that virtually the entire family had been ill.[16] They may have had scarlet fever which had reached epidemic proportions in 1858.[17] He indicated that his wife “Bettey” was very “lo,” [sic], unable to sit up or walk without assistance. He went on to explain that her illness stopped him from working putting him in debt from doctors’ bills. His said his sister Jane was staying with them trying to help out, but he was also paying her for her assistance, undoubtedly because it meant she could not work elsewhere as a result.  He explained that he had to keep working there because of his many debts. He said this would negatively impact Colier. In addition, he said that he had heard that “Johnsey Cranford” was about to lose his property because Johnsey had apparently borrowed against his land in order to send Wiley money. He wanted Colier to ask Johnsey to find a way to extend the deadline on those debts in order to give Wiley more time to raise the money needed to pay back what he owed. However, Wiley reiterated that, at the moment, he was at home making no money while he cared for his sick family members.[18] All family members, including his wife, seem to have recovered and were found still living in Fayetteville in 1860.[19] That would be the last entry found for Wiley.

Wiley Lassiter 1860 census

By 1870, Bettey and the children had returned to Randolph County, but there was no Wiley. [20] He could not be found either in Randolph County or Fayetteville. Had he died? It seems likely.  There is no indication of what their financial circumstances were. Had Wiley been able to pay off the debt? Had he returned with his family between 1860 and 1870? There’s no evidence one way or the other. Were other family members helping to maintain Bettey and her youngest children? Again, there is no information. Bettey, herself, would disappear from the records at this point. She was not in the 1880 census. It is assumed she had died.

If it can be assumed Wiley died before 1870, his death seems premature. Assuming he had also been ill at some point in 1858 when his family also was ill, he may have been potentially ill with scarlet fever. In the days before antibiotics, those who survived scarlet fever were often left with debilitating conditions, such as Rheumatic Heart Disease or kidney failure. Perhaps it was one last unfortunate turn that resulted in this seemingly early death for Wiley.[21]

References

[1] Williams, M. L. (2011). Some Descendants of Miles Lassiter: Wiley Lassiter (111-115). Miles Lassiter (circa 1777-1850) An Early African American Quaker from Lassiter Mill, Randolph County, North Carolina: My Research Journey to Home (Palm Coast, FL & Crofton, KY: Backintyme Publishing, Inc.).

[2] 1850 US Federal Census: Southern Division, Randolph, North Carolina; Willie [sic] Lassiter, head. NARA Roll: M432_641; Page: 136B; Image: 279. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8054/4204420_00279/12941870?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36231657774/facts/citation/221780005648/edit/record

[3] Randolph County Genealogical Society. (Winter 1981). The Willie [sic] Lassiter Petition. The Genealogical Journal, V(1), 38-42.

[4]  1850 US Federal Census: Southern Division, Randolph, North Carolina; Willie [sic] Lassiter, head. NARA Roll: M432_641; Page: 136B; Image: 279. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8054/4204420_00279/12941870?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36231657774/facts/citation/221780005648/edit/record

[5] North Carolina, Land Grant Files, 1693-1960 [Database on-line]. Wiley Lassiter, Entered 4 Jan 1850, Issued 29 Aug 1851. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/60621/44173_355629-00513/98608?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36231657774/facts/citation/960072979865/edit/record

[6] North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998 [Database on-line]. Henly [sic] Phillips Estate. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/9061/007384174_01225/1814897?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400616/facts/citation/960301203453/edit/record

[7] North Carolina, Land Grant Files, 1693-1960 [Database on-line]. W. P. Lassiter. Entered 4 Feb 1854, Issued 27 Dec 1856. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/60621/44173_355629-01001/98693?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36231657774/facts/citation/960072980059/edit/record

[8] Randolph County Genealogical Society. (Winter 1981). The Willie [sic] Lassiter Petition. The Genealogical Journal, V(1), 38-42.

[9] Tennessee Ernie Ford. (1955). Sixteen Tons Lyrics. Retrieved from: http://www.songlyrics.com/tennessee-ernie-ford/sixteen-tons-1955-lyrics/

[10] Wiley Phillips to Robert Murdock. (1856). Deed Book 29: 471. Family History Library Microfilm #0470233.

[11] Wiley Phillips to Robert Murdock. (1856). Deed Book 30: 326. Family History Library Microfilm #0470234.

[12] Willie [sic] Lassiter v Michael Bingham, (Sprint 1857). Minutes of the Superior Court and Court of Equity. Family History Library Microfilm #0470215.

[13] 1860 US Federal Census; Fayetteville, Cumberland, North Carolina; Wiley Lassiter (Index says “Sprister”). NARA Roll: M653_894; Page: 248; Image: 497; Family History Library Film: 803894. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7667/4237499_00497/41190920?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36231657774/facts/citation/221780004794/edit/record

[14] Notice of impending sale of Wiley P. Lassiter for debts by Emsley Lassiter. (5 May, 1858; 24 May 1858). Fayettevile Weekly Observer. Retrieved from: https://www.newspapers.com/clip/10089057/notice_of_impending_sale_of_wiley_p/?xid=637

[15] Williams, M. L. (2011). Some Descendants of Miles Lassiter: Wiley Lassiter (111-115). Miles Lassiter (circa 1777-1850) An Early African American Quaker from Lassiter Mill, Randolph County, North Carolina: My Research Journey to Home (Palm Coast, FL & Crofton, KY: Backintyme Publishing, Inc.), 113-114.

[16] Williams, M. L. (2011). Some Descendants of Miles Lassiter: Wiley Lassiter (111-115). Miles Lassiter (circa 1777-1850) An Early African American Quaker from Lassiter Mill, Randolph County, North Carolina: My Research Journey to Home (Palm Coast, FL & Crofton, KY: Backintyme Publishing, Inc.), 113-114.

[17] Healthline Editorial Team. (2016). 1858: Scarlet fever also came in waves. The Most Dangerous Epidemics in U.S. History. Retrieved from: https://www.healthline.com/health/worst-disease-outbreaks-history#Scarletfever5

[18] Williams, M. L. (2011). Some Descendants of Miles Lassiter: Wiley Lassiter (111-115). Miles Lassiter (circa 1777-1850) An Early African American Quaker from Lassiter Mill, Randolph County, North Carolina: My Research Journey to Home (Palm Coast, FL & Crofton, KY: Backintyme Publishing, Inc.), 113-114.

[19] 1860 US Federal Census; Fayetteville, Cumberland, North Carolina; Wiley Lassiter (Index says “Sprister”). NARA Roll: M653_894; Page: 248; Image: 497; Family History Library Film: 803894. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7667/4237499_00497/41190920?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36231657774/facts/citation/221780004794/edit/record

[20] 1870 US Federal Census: Asheboro, Randolph, North Carolina; Elizabeth Lassiter, head. NARA Roll: M593-1156; Page: 287B; Image: 24; Family History Library Film: 552655. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7163/4277632_00024/22961732?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36232181827/facts/citation/221782025459/edit/record

[21] What Are the Long Term Effects of Scarlet Fever? Reference. Retrieved from: https://www.reference.com/health/long-term-effects-scarlet-fever-1cff2d43682e4564

#52Ancestors – Week #11-Lucky: Finding Miles

There have been many lucky moments when it comes to my research into the life of my 4th great grandfather, Miles Lassiter of Randolph County, North Carolina. From my earliest research efforts, I’ve been lucky with this one. My first clues from my 2nd great grandmother’s (Ellen Dunson Smitherman Mayo) death certificate in 1920 led me almost straight to Miles.[1] Having learned that the maiden name of my 3rd great grandmother was Nancy Lassiter, and her married name was Nancy Dunson/Dunston, I quickly found her in the 1880 census[2] and was able to trace her back to the 1850 census where she was living in the household with Miles Lassiter.[3] They were free people of color. The relationship to Miles was confirmed in a deed from my 2nd great grandmother (Ellen) to apparent Lassiter cousins (Will Lassiter and Colon Lassiter) which said the lands originated in the “Division of Lands of Miles Lassiter.”[4] I had struck genealogy gold it seemed, compared to my research on my direct line Williams family wherein I had not struck gold, but rather the proverbial, but very real “brick wall.”

Ellen Mayo deed to Will Lassiter

I was amazed to find that I would be able to mine a lot more information on Miles, with relatively little effort. First, I continued looking back in the census. Although I did not find Miles in the 1840 census, I did find him in the 1830 census as a free head of household.[5] Since both the 1830 and 1840 censuses only name heads of household, not the individual household members, I would not be able to confirm other than by extrapolation, that Nancy was in the household. I knew also that in 1840 it was possible that Miles was living in someone else’s household whose name I did not know, but whose name appeared on the census while Miles’ name did not.

In the deeds, I learned that Miles bought 100 acres in 1815.[6] He also sold it in 1826 with a co-signer, Sarah Lassiter, who did not appear on the 1815 deed of purchase and who was white.[7] I assumed there was some relationship, but for the moment exact what relationship was not clear.  I thought this was interesting. I thought he must have been fortunate to purchase such a substantial piece of land in 1815 but wondered what prompted its sale in 1826. I would learn later that political winds had shifted taking some of the freedoms and safety of free people of color with them. However, although I did not find another deed for any land purchases, by 1850, according to the census, Miles again owned property valued at $590.[8] It seemed fair to say that fortune had continued to smile on him over the years.

Miles 1815 Deed

In 1807, in the Court of Common Pleas and Quarter Session minutes, I found Miles mentioned along with two other men named Jack Lassiter and Samuel Lassiter, assigned to road maintenance.[9] I found something else in the court minutes, indications that his life had not been all good fortune. Perhaps more to the point, the information was somewhat confusing.

In February 1840, Letters of Administration were issued for the estate of Sarah Lassiter, including papers regarding the estate of Ezekiel Lassiter.[10] Is this the same Sarah Lassiter from the 1826 deed? Based on everything else I found, it was, but[11] who was Ezekiel? Sarah was known to have a grandson Ezekiel, but he was alive and well, in fact he was one of three who posted bond for the Letters of Administration. He did not die until 1865.[12] These Letters were followed by the account of sale of the property of Sarah and Ezekiel. Sarah’s property was the usual, beds and tables and cows and horses, etc., but Ezekiel’s property sale was very interesting. His property was sold on the same day as Sarah’s. There were only three “Negro” men: Miles, Jack, and Samuel.[13] Miles was bought by “Heley,” a free woman, for $0.05; Jack by “Colier,” a free man, for $12.50, but Samuel was sold to Sawney Cranford, a local Quaker. Seems Samuel had run away. He was captured in the Raleigh area. Expenses associated with his recapture needed to be recouped, thus he was sold for $263. Heley I would learn was his wife, and Colier his son. In fact, Colier was among his apparent children in his household in the 1850 census.[14] This raised some questions. All other records in which Miles’ name had appeared indicated he was a free man, including the 1830 census. Suddenly in 1840, we have records in which he is referred to as a slave. He was free again in 1850, probably as a result of his purchase by “Heley,” whose name did not appear in the 1850 census, (even though it was her name I would find in the 1840 census[15]) indicating she had likely died. Had something happened to make Miles lose his freedom? I had no idea.

Letters of Admin Ezekiel & Sarah Lassiter

I had one other piece of information about his life. In 1845 Hinshaw’s Encyclopedia of Quaker Genealogy indicated that Miles had requested membership in Back Creek Monthly Meeting.[16] However, there was no indication of the results. Miles’ name did not appear in any censuses after 1850, indicating he had died. Various land transactions and lawsuits involving Colier and the other children over the next several years supported that conclusion. Thus, I had a fairly good picture of Miles’ life, I thought. I had searched many different record types. I figured that whatever else there was to learn would have to fall into my lap. Famous last words.

One night in the early 1990s, I was at a party. Google was just becoming a popular search engine. A friend was talking about putting one’s own name into Google and being surprised by what came up. “Try it,” she admonished, “you’ll be shocked at what information about you is on there.” So, one night I was sitting at the computer idly. I thought, “Why not?” So, I put my name in the search line. The information that came up was somewhat predictable. There appeared the titles of several articles I had written over the years. One of those was about Miles. “Why not put Miles’ name in?” I thought. I was stunned. I stared at the screen. Up had come an article in the Journal of Negro History, written in 1936, about African American members of the Society of Friends. Miles was one of those being featured. [17]  It explained that he had been a slave until the 1840 estate sale. It mentioned that he had become a Quaker in 1845. The only other member in North Carolina had been Isaac Linegar, in 1801. It had taken him four years to be admitted.[18] The article went on to say that he was the only African American Quaker in the state of North Carolina when he died in 1850. It also mentioned there was an obituary that had been published in Friends Review. [19] I quickly obtained a copy. It explained that he had been born a slave, that his owner had died leaving him to the widow as long as she lived, that he was the business manager for his mistress, that he was married to a free woman and together they had acquired a large property adjacent to his mistress, that once his mistress had died he was sold to his wife. It went on to say that he had indeed been accepted into the Society of Friends, and in 1850 when he died, he was the only African American Quaker in the state of North Carolina.

Doc 8-Miles Obituary Friends Review

By any measure Miles had been lucky overall. He had been given opportunities and he had taken advantage of them. He had been fortunate enough to not only enjoy many benefits of freedom while still a slave, but ultimately to be a free man at a time when so many others were not. I was lucky because I had been able to uncover so much about his life. I am even luckier because he was my 4th great grandfather, and I know my good fortune rests very much on his shoulders.

To learn more about my research on Miles Lassiter, see Miles Lassiter (circa 1777-1850) An Early African American Quaker from Lassiter Mill, Randolph County, North Carolina: My Research Journey to Home (Backintyme Publishing).

References

[1] North Carolina, Death Certificates, 1909-1975 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Ellen Mayo, 12 Jun 1920. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/1121/S123_110-2318/842351?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156399534/facts/citation/221711655280/edit/record

[2]  1880 US Federal Census; New Hope, Randolph, North Carolina, E.D. 223, p. 184A. Nancy Dunson, head. NARA Roll: 978; Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/6742/4243412-00659?pid=19787325&backurl=https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv%3D1%26dbid%3D6742%26h%3D19787325%26ssrc%3Dpt%26tid%3D66453873%26pid%3D36156400421%26usePUB%3Dtrue&ssrc=pt&treeid=66453873&personid=36156400421&hintid=&usePUB=true&usePUBJs=true

[3] 1850 US Federal Census; Southern Division, Randolph, North Carolina; Miles Lassiter head; Nancy Lassiter. NARA Roll: M432-641; Page: 136B; Image: 279. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8054/4204420_00279/12941849?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400421/facts/citation/221710705417/edit/record#?imageId=4204420_00279

[4] Estate of Miles Lassiter/Charles and Ellen Mayo to Will Lassiter and Colon Lassiter. (1915). Deed Book 166: 91; Family History Library Microfilm #0470286.

[5] 1830 US Census; Census Place: Regiment 1, Randolph, North Carolina; Smiles [sic-index] Lassiter, head. Page: 7; NARA Roll M19-125; Family History Film: 0018091. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8058/4410684_00017/242848?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400532/facts/citation/221710701113/edit/record

[6] Jesse Morgan to Miles Lassiter. (1815). Deed Book 13:402. Family History Library Microfilm #0019635.

[7] Sarah Lassiter and Miles Lassiter to Henry Newby. (1826). Deed Book 17:256. Family History Library Microfilm #0019636.

[8] 1850 US Federal Census; Southern Division, Randolph, North Carolina; Miles Lassiter head. NARA Roll: M432-641; Page: 136A. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8054/4204420_00278/12941844?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400532/facts/citation/221436746765/edit/record

[9] Road Maintenance Assignment. (1807). Miles Lassiter, Jack Lassiter, and Samuel Lassiter. Minutes of the Court of Common Pleas and Quarter Sessions. Family History Library Microfilm #0470210.

[10] North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998 [Database on-line]. Estate of Sarah Lassiter, including Estate of Ezekiel Lassiter, Letters of Administration. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/9061/007383993_00516/1055004?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36238403974/facts/citation/960193128235/edit/record#?imageId=007383993_00518

[11] North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998 [Database on-line]. Estate of Sarah Lassiter, including Estate of Ezekiel Lassiter, Account of Sale of Estate of Ezekiel Lassiter. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/9061/007383993_00516/1055004?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36238403974/facts/citation/960193128235/edit/record#?imageId=007383993_00528

[12] U.S., Find A Grave Index, 1600s-Current [database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Ezekiel Lassiter, 11 Mar 1865. Retrieved from: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/60051008

[13] North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998 [Database on-line]. Estate of Sarah Lassiter, including Estate of Ezekiel Lassiter, Inventory. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/9061/007383993_00516/1055004?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36238403974/facts/citation/960193128235/edit/record#?imageId=007383993_00522

[14] 1850 US Federal Census; Southern Division, Randolph, North Carolina; Miles Lassiter head; Colier Lassiter. NARA Roll: M432-641; Page: 136B; Image: 279. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8054/4204420_00279/12941849?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400421/facts/citation/221710705417/edit/record#?imageId=4204420_00279

[15] 1840 US Federal Census; South Division, Randolph, North Carolina; Heley Phillips, head. NARA Roll: 369; Page: 65; Image: 136; Family History Library Film: 0018097. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8057/4410817_00136/1646123?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400616/facts/citation/221710701383/edit/record

[16] Hinshaw, William Wade, et al., compilers. (Reprint, 1991–1994). Miles Lassiter. Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy: North Carolina (1936–1950, 6 volumes), I, 723. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co.

[17] Cadbury, H. (1936). Negro Membership in the Society of Friends (Part 3). Journal of Negro History, 21,180-209. Retrieved from: http://www.qhpress.org/quakerpages/qwhp/hcjnh3.htm

[18] Cadbury, H. (1936). Negro Membership in the Society of Friends (Part 2). Journal of Negro History, 21,151-180. Retrieved from: http://www.qhpress.org/quakerpages/qwhp/hcjnh2.htm

[19] Miles Lassiter Obituary. (22 June 1850). Friends Review, III,700.

#52Ancestors – A Strong Woman – Healy Phillips Lassiter

Deciding on which strong woman from my family to feature for this essay has left me in a quandary. I have been fortunate enough to be surrounded my whole life by strong women who have been my role models. I have already written about a few of them. This week I wanted to focus on a woman from several generations back who really provided significantly to the many opportunities and privileges my maternal family enjoys today. She was Healy Phillips Lassiter, a free woman of color, and my 4th great grandmother. She was married to Miles Lassiter, my 4th great grandfather. They lived in southwestern Randolph County, North Carolina. While many of life’s trials require extra strength, being a free woman of color, married to a slave in the first half of the 1800’s must have required extraordinary strength.

As best as I can determine, Healy was born around 1780.[1] I know it was somewhere in North Carolina, but I do not know if it was in the Piedmont where Randolph County is, or it was in eastern North Carolina. Although her last name is spelled Phelps in the earliest record I have found, I have not been able to confirm if she had a relationship with the Jonathan Phelps family, Quakers, who came to the Piedmont from eastern North Carolina sometime in the late colonial period, early US period, when she can be confirmed to be living there. I note also that the “Phillips” spelling is noted in later documents, perhaps indicating the influence of a Phillips family that also lived in the area, but with whom I have not found any relationship.

Doc 35-Healy Phillips 1840 census.jpg

The first time I found Healy in public records was in the 1840 census; she was listed as a head of household and since the enumeration only identifies people by age, gender, and free status, I thought “Heley” was the male head of household.[2] It would be many years later before I learned that it was a nickname for Mahalia. In any event, the 1840 census was the only place I had seen the name for quite a while. I should note that I had heard from a cousin that Miles’ wife was named something like “Hildy,” but I never put the two together, because the last name in the census was Phillips, not Lassiter.

My first break at truly identifying her came when a local librarian/historian from the county historical and genealogical society sent me information that there was an intestate probate for a “Healy Phillips or Lassiter.”[3] It did not name Miles, but it did name all their children: Emsley, Abigail, Colier, Susannah, Wiley, Nancy (my 3rd great grandmother), and Jane. What was notable beyond confirming her relationship to the children who could be found on censuses in connection with Miles and each other in subsequent years, was that she owned a significant amount of property, 400 acres in fact. I couldn’t find where she bought this land outright. There was a legend that the land had been given to the family. Had it been? There were no deeds to be found in Healy’s name. However, there was other information to be found about Healy.

Doc 1C-Heirs at law of Healy Phillips or Lassiter.jpg

The earliest record found for Healy was an 1818 bastardy bond, wherein she was called “Huldy Phelps.”[4] She did not name the man. Another record implied her presence but did not name her; it was the 1830 census. Miles Lassiter was listed as a free man of color, and his family was enumerated by gender and age. Presumably, Healy was the woman 36-54 years of age.[5] The roles switched in 1840 when Healy was listed as head of household.

1840 turned out to be an important year for Healy and her family. Sarah Lassiter, the widow of the man who had been her husband Miles’ owner died. Healy had an opportunity to buy Miles’ freedom, which she did for $0.05, most likely because he was described as an old crippled man.[6]

Doc 7-Account of Sale-Ezekiel Lassiter.jpg

I was also alerted in a letter from a Marian Miller to another transaction in August 1840, in which Miles and Healy were mentioned in a deed of trust between John Newsome and Ezekiel Lassiter (most likely the grandson of Ezekiel Sr. and Sarah Lassiter). The deed indicated that John Newsom owed “Helley Phillips and her heirs or children had by Miles Lassiter … due to bonds for $250.[7] The bond was posted for Newsom and it maintained that if he did not pay the money back, he would have to forfeit to her 150 acres on Hannah’s Creek, a tributary of the Uwharrie River, in the Lassiter’s Mill area of southwestern Randolph County. Healy would appear in only one other record, that was another deed of trust in 1842 wherein she was a trustee on behalf of Edward “Ned” Hill, a free man of color.[8] Although Healy would not appear again in records in her own right, she was still a factor in several records.

The first was Miles’ obituary, which appeared after his death in June 1850. It stated that,

he married a free woman early in life and brought of up a large family of children to more respectability than is common for free colored persons in their neighborhood. … His wife and children by their industry and his management accumulated a sufficiency to purchase a small farm upon which they lived comfortably a number of years. At length they were able to purchase another adjoining the farm of his mistress and removed to it…[9]

Doc 8-Miles Obituary Friends Review.jpg

In 1851, a letter by Jonathan Worth, then a lawyer in Asheboro (later a governor), retained after Miles had died, by Colier Phillips Lassiter, Miles and Healy’s son referenced Healy. Apparently, Healy had been married before Miles and had four other children. Colier needed to know if the estate had to be divided among them as well. Worth summarized the issue: “Colier Philips, of color, consults us on the following case – He states that he is the son of a free woman of color, named Helia – that she had four children by a first husband and seven by a second husband who was a slave, the said Collier [sic] being one of the seven – that his mother died some five years ago possessed of a considerable personal estate. …[10]  Her estate containing 400 acres of land was probated about 1854, as referenced above.

In 1856, Wiley Phillips Lassiter, another son, was involved in a lawsuit against a Michael Bingham for not paying him for carriages and horses on consignment with Bingham. In the petition Wiley stated that he had inherited two tracts of land from his mother, one 268 acres and the other 150 acres, about five or six years earlier actually referencing Miles’ death.[11]

From these few records a picture of Healy as a strong independent-minded woman emerged. I do not doubt that her strength of character and personality were reflected in daughters, granddaughters, and great granddaughters alike. I could see it in my mother, and recognize it in the stories of my grandmother, great grandmother, and great-great grandmother, especially. I’ve seen it in my cousins Kate, Vella, and Ave who each worked in their own way to further social justice, as well as others who have become teachers, nurses, veterinarians, and more. I hope I have been able to convey it to my daughter.

References

[1] 1840 US Federal Census; South Division, Randolph, North Carolina; Heley Phillips of color, head. NARA Roll: 369; Page: 65; Image: 136; Family History Library Film: 0018097. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8057/4410817_00136/1646123?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400616/facts/citation/221710701383/edit/record

[2] 1840 US Federal Census; South Division, Randolph, North Carolina; Heley Phillips of color, head. NARA Roll: 369; Page: 65; Image: 136; Family History Library Film: 0018097. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8057/4410817_00136/1646123?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400616/facts/citation/221710701383/edit/record

[3] Phillips Heirs. (Winter 1982). The Genealogical Journal of the Randolph County Genealogical Society, VI, 51-52. See also, North Carolina, Wills and Probate Records, 1665-1998 [Database on-line]. Henly [sic] Phillips Estate. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/9061/007384174_01225/1814897?backurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ancestry.com%2Ffamily-tree%2Fperson%2Ftree%2F66453873%2Fperson%2F36156400616%2Ffacts%2Fcitation%2F960301203453%2Fedit%2Frecord&bm=true#?imageid=007384174_01228&imageId=007384174_01228

[4] Vidales, C. L. and Cates, L. (n.d.). Huldy Phelps, bastardy bond. Randolph County, NC Bastardy Bond Abstracts and Related Records, 1786-1918 (Arranged and Indexed by Pamela Winslow Donahue), p. 20.

[5] 1830 US Federal Census; Regiment 1, Randolph, North Carolina; Smiles [sic] Lassator, head. NARA Roll M19-125; Page: 7; Family History Library Film: 0018091. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8058/4410684_00017/242848?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400616/facts/citation/960072978653/edit/record

[6] Estate of Sarah Lassiter and Ezekiel Lassiter, Will Book 7:332. Sale of Miles Lassiter to Healy Phillips. Family History Library Microfilm 0019643.

[7] John Newsome to Ezekiel Lassiter, Deed Book 22; proved in court, August term 1840, Randolph County Court of Common Pleas and Quarter Sessions.

[8] Edward Hill to Samuel Hill, Ezekiel Lassiter, et al. Deed Book 25:1. Family History Library Microfilm 0019639 or 0470232.

.[9] Miles Lassiter Obituary. (22 June 1850). Friends Review, III,700.

[10] Statement of J. Worth, 22 Jan 1851. Copy in possession of the author. See also: Williams, M. L. (2011). Miles Lassiter (circa 1777-1850) An Early African-American Quaker from Lassiter Mil, Randolph County, North Carolina: My Research Journey to Home (Palm Coast, FL & Crofton, KY: Backintyme Publishing, Inc.), pp. 65-66.

[11] The Willie Lassiter Petition. (Winter 1981). The Genealogical Journal by the Randolph County Genealogical Society, V, 38-42.

 

#52Ancestors – Where there’s a will…

[O]r even where’s there is none, there is a lot of information to learn.  In African American research, finding enslaved ancestors before 1865, usually requires research into the potential slave owner’s records, of which the probate records are particularly useful.  Such was the case when I was attempting to determine the relationship between “Maria Green,” my great grandfather’s (Randel Farnell) mother, and her likely owners.

Randel Farnell
Randel Farnell

I had learned Maria’s name from my great grandfather’s death certificate;[1] I also had some oral family history. The oral history said that he had a half-brother, who was white, named “Gus Farnell.” It also mentioned another half-brother, this one a person of color, named Henry. Randel’s death certificate named “Jack Farnell,” as his father.[2] Finding documented relationships among all these individuals would hopefully lead to the name of Maria’s owner, as well as confirm family oral history.

Doc C-Randel Farnell DC
Randel Farnell Death Certificate

My great grandfather’s 1928 death certificate said he was born in Hawkinsville, Georgia. However, my great grandfather lived much of his life in Florida. From 1880 to 1920, he can be found listed in the census in Live Oak, Suwannee County, Florida.[3]  In 1870, he was living in Lake City, in neighboring Columbia County.[4] There were several white Farnell family groups in Columbia County at that time as well, but no “Gus.” In 1860, John, Daniel, and James Farnell, along with their probable families were living in Hamilton County, which is just north of Suwannee County.[5],[6] Georgia was the place of birth recorded.  In James Farnell’s household a Mary, and an Augustus were recorded. He was a potential candidate for the “Gus” in our family’s oral history. In 1850, only James Farnell and his family were found in Hamilton County.[7] The others were found in Dooly County, Georgia, a neighboring county to Pulaski.

When looking in the 1840 census for Pulaski County, Georgia, where Hawkinsville is the county seat, I found the James Farnell family.[8] There was an older enslaved woman and an enslaved child included in the enumeration. This would have been before my great grandfather was born. Farnell was a singular surname in Pulaski County. The only person identified as old enough to be James’ father in earlier censuses was Elisha Farnell. I surmised that somewhere in the records of either Elisha or James, or both, I would find information about Maria.

I had seen Elisha’s name in an on-line tax record dated 1818.[9] According to it he was a substantial landowner with 24 enslaved persons. The 1820 census recorded 26 enslaved persons.[10] He was not found in any census records after 1820. Turning to the minutes of the Court of the Ordinary, I was able to determine that Elisha died sometime before May 1823. Knowing that he had married a second wife, Priscilla Biggs, in February of 1823,[11] it could be determined that he had died sometime between February and May 1823. In May, a probate was opened, but there was no will. Elisha had died intestate. On 6 May, Letters of Administration were issued with the posting of a bond in the extraordinary sum of $30,000.[12]

005778373_00365 (2)
Elisha Farnell Letters of Administration

Regardless of the existence of a will, property and debts must be addressed. One of the first acts of the probate is to inventory the property. Included in Elisha’s inventory were the enslaved. On the inventory was an enslaved girl, “Mareah, $325.”[13] That confirmed that a Maria/Mareah was owned by Elisha.

005778373_00390 (2)
Elisha Farnell Inventory

Now I needed to link her to James, and thereby to Augustus “Gus.” To do that I looked for the final distribution of the estate. In the distribution, Elisha’s widow Priscilla, and his supposed children, Mary, William, Benjamin, Daniel, John and James, are mentioned. Each, as part of the distribution, received one or more enslaved persons. James received “Mareah.”[14] His brother John received another female enslaved person in the distribution, a girl named Fanny.[15] That was interesting because Randel’s reported other, half-brother, Henry Farnell’s mother was listed in the 1880 Suwannee County census as Fanny Fuller, “widow,” born in Georgia.[16] They were both persons of color.

Doc B3-Division of Elisha Farnell estate Mariah to James Image 377
Elisha Farnell Distribution of Estate: Maria & Fanny

With the advent of the Civil War, Gus would serve as a musician with the Confederate Army.[17] He was captured and held at the prison in Farmville, Prince Edward County, Virginia. He was released after taking an oath of allegiance 24 June 1865.[18]  His father James, would also see active duty, he died from gunshot wounds in a hospital in Winchester, Virginia.[19] What happened to James’ wife, Mary? It is assumed she died since she is not found in census or other records identified after the war was over. After the war Gus returned to Hamilton County, where he could be found marrying Mary Johns in 1867,[20] then again in 1870 to Georgia Vincent Goodbread, most likely in Columbia County where she lived.[21]  However, he was found living alone in Orange County in the 1870 census.[22] He would marry a third and final time in 1874 to Nancy Elizabeth “Nelly” Wheeler in Orange County.[23] He died in 1911, in Oviedo, Seminole County (formerly Orange County), Florida.[24]

Augustus P Farnell Confederate Jacket
Confederate Jacket of Augustus P. Farnell

What about Maria and Randel? Maria was found with her presumed husband, Frank Green, in the 1870 census in the Lake City area of Columbia County,[25] where Randel had also been found. Randel was listed with his wife, Sallie (Sallie Jacobs). There were four children named in the household, Anna, Richard, Maryland, and Joshua R.[26] My grandmother Lela wasn’t born yet; she wasn’t born until 1876.

Sallie Jacobs
Sallie Jacobs Farnell

About 1877, Randel and his family moved to Suwannee County, where his wife Sallie’s parents and siblings were living, coincidentally next to my paternal Williams great grandparents and grandfather in 1870.[27] Randel and family, including my grandmother Lela,[28] along with Henry and his mother could be found on the 1880 census living there.[29] Randel would apply for and acquire property in Live Oak, the county seat, through the Homestead Act.[30]

RHUSA2007B_FL0750-00489
Randel Farnell Homestead Certificate

He would raise his family in Live Oak, including my grandmother Lela, eventually dying there in 1928.[31]

Lela Virginia Farnell
Lela Virginia Farnell Williams

Thus, the probate of Elisha Farnell has established that a girl Mareaha (Maria) was listed among his enslaved property on his death. Additionally, there was a girl named Fannie on the inventory. Mareaha was distributed to James and Fannie to John. They were Elisha’s presumed children, based on the distribution, even though not explicitly so designated. James had a son Augustus, presumably the same “Gus,” that Randel’s family said was his half-brother. Fannie was presumed to be the same Fannie, who was mother of Henry, another half-brother, but more likely his cousin. Thus, even without a will, I was able to establish a relationship between my great grandfather, his mother Maria, his half-brother Gus, Gus’s father James, and finally to James’ father, Elisha Farnell.

[1] Florida Death Index, 1877-1998 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Randel Farnell, 1928. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7338/VRDUSAFL1877_0802-0043?pid=5021868&backurl=https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv%3D1%26dbid%3D7338%26h%3D5021868%26ssrc%3Dpt%26tid%3D66453873%26pid%3D36156388330%26usePUB%3Dtrue&ssrc=pt&treeid=66453873&personid=36156388330&hintid=&usePUB=true&usePUBJs=true

[2] Florida State Certificate of Death, Live Oak Suwannee County. Certificate No. 16372. Randel Farnell, 27 Oct 1928. Certified original in possession of the author.

[3] 1880 US Federal Census; Precinct 1, Suwannee, Florida. Randel Farnell, head. NARA Roll: 132; Family History Film: 1254132; Page: 282A; Enumeration District: 145; See also: 1900 US Federal Census; Live Oak, Suwannee, Florida; Randel Farnell, head. NARA Roll: 177; Page: 5A; Enumeration District: 0109; FHL microfilm: 1240177. See also: 1910 US Federal Census; Live Oak, Suwannee, Florida; Randell Farnell, head; NARA Roll: T624-168; Page: 18A; Enumeration District: 0148; FHL microfilm: 1374181. See also: 1920 US Federal Census; Live Oak, Suwannee, Florida; Randel Farnell, head. NARA Roll: T625-231; Page: 16A; Enumeration District: 149; Image: 783.

[4] 1870 US Federal Census; Columbia, Florida; NARA Roll: M593_128; Page: 396A; Image: 799; Family History Library Film: 545627. Randel Farnell, head (barely legible). Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7163/4263354_00799/2270561?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156388330/facts/citation/221436181427/edit/record

[5] 1860 US Federal Census; Hamilton, Florida; NARA Roll: M653-107; Page: 623; Image: 63; Family History Library Film: 803107. John Farnell, head; Daniel Farnell, head. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7667/4211366_00063/10590249?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36265394957/facts/citation/221964730387/edit/record

[6] 1860 US Federal Census; Hamilton, Florida; NARA Roll: M653_107; Page: 580; Image: 20; Family History Library Film: 803107. James Farnell, head. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7667/4211366_00020/10587170?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400968/facts/citation/221528135693/edit/record

[7] 1850 Us Federal Census; District 1, Hamilton, Florida; NARA Roll: M432-58; Page: 226B; Image: 445. James Farnell, head. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8054/4193083-00445/18449607?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400968/facts/citation/222369565079/edit/record

 

[8] 1840 US Federal Census; Captain Baldwind’s District, Pulaski, Georgia; Roll: 49; Page: 172; Family History Library Film: 0007046. James Farnell, head. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8057/4185983_00353/1832324?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400968/facts/citation/960340791792/edit/record

[9] Some early tax digests of Georgia, Pulaski County, 1818 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Elisha Farnell. Retrieved from: Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/25650/dvm_LocHist010509-00060-1/78?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156402732/facts/citation/222332731361/edit/record

[10] 1820 US Federal Census; Pulaski, Georgia; Page: 67; NARA Roll: M33-9; Image: 107. Elisha Farnell, head. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7734/4433224_00107/1480873?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156402732/facts/citation/221436747163/edit/record

[11] Georgia, Marriage Records from Select Counties, 1828-1978 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Elisha Farnell and Priscilla Biggs, 6 Feb 1823. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/4766/40660_307945-00020/926612?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156402732/facts/citation/221962935325/edit/record

[12] Georgia, Wills and Probate Records, 1742-1992 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Elisha Farnell, Letters of Administration, 6 May 1823. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8635/005778373_00377#?imageId=005778373_00365

[13] Georgia, Wills and Probate Records, 1742-1992 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Elisha Farnell, Inventory, 22 Dec 1823. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8635/005778373_00377#?imageId=005778373_00390

[14] Georgia, Wills and Probate Records, 1742-1992 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Elisha Farnell, Final Distribution of the Estate, 30 Dec 1823. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8635/005778373_00377#?imageId=005778373_00377

[15] Georgia, Wills and Probate Records, 1742-1992 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Elisha Farnell, Final Distribution of the Estate, 30 Dec 1823. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/8635/005778373_00377#?imageId=005778373_00377

[16] 1880 US Federal Census; Precinct 1, Suwannee, Florida; NARA Roll: 132; Family History Film: 1254132; Page: 287A; Enumeration District: 145; Image: 0340. Henry Farnell, birthplace, Florida; Frances fuller, mother, birthplace, Georgia. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/6742/4240124-00340/5113466?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/330004895943/facts/citation/960023926435/edit/record

[17] U.S., Confederate Soldiers Compiled Service Records, 1861-1865 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Augustus Farnell, Musician (Fifth Infantry), Enlisted 14 Mar 1862, Jasper (Hamilton County), Florida. Retrieved from: https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=2322&h=119118767&ssrc=pt&tid=66453873&pid=36265288846&usePUB=true

[18] U.S., Civil War Prisoner of War Records, 1861-1865 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. A. P. Farnell, Confederate, 5th Infantry. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/1124/M598_107-0072/644879?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36265288846/facts/citation/960026071717/edit/record

[19] U.S., Civil War Soldier Records and Profiles, 1861-1865 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. James Farnell, Confederate, Private, F Company, 5th Infantry; Survived the war: no; Mustered out 15 Oct 1862, Winchester, VA. Retrieved from: https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=1555&h=425480&ssrc=pt&tid=66453873&pid=36156400968&usePUB=true; See also: Compiled Service Records, Confederate States Army, [Public Photo on-line]. Ancestry.com. James Farnell, 16 Oct 1862, “Died from a Winchester gun wound.” Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/mediaui-viewer/tree/66453873/person/36156400968/media/acd3f9c2-24c6-48d5-9083-02693855c18b?usePUBJs=true

[20] U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Augustus P. Farnell and Mary I. T. Johns, 1867. Retrieved from: https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=7836&h=398880&ssrc=pt&tid=66453873&pid=36265288846&usePUB=true

[21] U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Augustus P Farnell and Georgia Vincent [sic], 1870. Retrieved from: https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=7836&h=398881&ssrc=pt&tid=66453873&pid=36265288846&usePUB=true

[22] 1870 US Federal Census; Division 17, Orange, Florida; A. P. Farnell, head. NARA Roll: M593-33; Page: 438A; Image: 11; Family History Library Film: 545632. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7163/4263359_00011/3446040?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36265288846/facts/citation/223425741958/edit/record

[23] U.S. and International Marriage Records, 1560-1900 [Database on-line]. Ancestry.com. Augustus P Farnell and Nancy Elizabeth Wheeler, 1879. Retrieved from: https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=7836&h=398882&ssrc=pt&tid=66453873&pid=36265288846&usePUB=true

[24] Find A Grave [Database on-line]. Augustus P. Farnell, 5 Mar 1911, Oviedo Cemetery, Memorial 31836248. Retrieved from: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/31836248

[25] 1870 US Federal Census; Columbia, Florida; Frank Green head; Maria Green, age 40. NARA Roll: M593-128; Page: 383A; Image: 773; Family History Library Film: 545627. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7163/4263354_00773/13827089?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156401066/facts/citation/221868130047/edit/record

[26] 1870 US Federal Census; Columbia, Florida; NARA Roll: M593_128; Page: 396A; Image: 799; Family History Library Film: 545627. Randel Farnell, head (barely legible). Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7163/4263354_00799/2270561?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156388330/facts/citation/221436181427/edit/record

[27] 1870 US Federal Census; Subdivision 9, Suwannee, Florida; William Jacobs, head. NARA Roll: M593-133; Page: 686A; Image: 507; Family History Library Film: 545632. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7163/4263359_00507/448439?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156400719/facts/citation/221857436539/edit/record

[28] 1880 US Federal Census; Precinct 1, Suwannee, Florida. Randel Farnell, head. NARA Roll: 132; Family History Film: 1254132; Page: 282A; Enumeration District: 145. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/6742/4240124-00330/3564452?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/36156388413/facts/citation/221436181735/edit/record#?imageId=4240124-00330

[29] 1880 US Federal Census; Precinct 1, Suwannee, Florida; Henry Farnell, birthplace, Florida; Frances fuller, mother, birthplace, Georgia. NARA Roll: 132; Family History Film: 1254132; Page: 287A; Enumeration District: 145; Image: 0340. Retrieved from: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/6742/4240124-00340/5113466?backurl=https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/person/tree/66453873/person/330004895943/facts/citation/960023926435/edit/record

[30] Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior, General Land Office Records; Washington D.C., USA; Federal Land Patents, State Volumes, Randel Farnell, Gainesville Land Office, Documents 4776 & 5637, Suwannee County, Florida, Issue Date 10 Feb 1885. Retrieved from: https://glorecords.blm.gov/details/patent/default.aspx?accession=FL0750__.489&docClass=STA&sid=x3bedxve.zyx

[31] Florida State Certificate of Death, Live Oak Suwannee County. Certificate No. 16372. Randel Farnell, 27 Oct 1928. Certified original in possession of the author.